The Republic of Tajikistan has inexhaustible reserves of hydroelectric resources, occupying the 8th place in the world in terms of their specific reserves (per capita and area unit). Tajikistan has the potential to produce 527 billion kW/hr. of electricity per year, but today only 6% of this potential is being used. Over the years of independence, the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan has been implementing raft of measures on the way to achieving one of the strategic goals, which is energy independence. So, for example, the following facilities were built and put into operation:
- the Sangtuda-1 hydroelectric power plant with a capacity of 670 MW;
- the Sangtuda-2 hydroelectric power station with a capacity of 220 MW;
- 283 small hydroelectric power plants with a capacity of 30 thousand kW;
- Dushanbe-2 CHP plant, with a capacity of 400 mW;
- North-South PTL – 500 kW.
In addition, projects on modernization and reconstruction of existing facilities in the electric power industry has been continued. At present, by the financial support of the Asian Development Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, a project feasibility has been developed on the rehabilitation and modernization projects for the Head HPP (240 MW) and Kairakkum HPP (126 MW). The Government of the Republic of Tajikistan signed an agreement with the Asian Development Bank to allocate a grant of 136 million USD for the modernization of the Head HPP. Projects for the modernization of hydroelectric power plants also envisage an increase in the capacity of hydroelectric generators up to 10%, which will ensure an increase in their installed capacity.
The great importance for the Republic of Tajikistan is the development of the transport industry and breaking the communication deadlock is undoubtedly one of the strategic goals of the state.
Tajikistan does not have direct access to seaports. Therefore, roads and railway systems are keys to the country’s economic development. More than 90% of the passenger turnover and about 70% of freight traffic accounted for road transport. Republic of Tajikistan is a member of 10 international transport programs, including – ESCAP, UN, TRACECA, SPO, SPECA, ECO.
In recent years, by attracting foreign investment, 38 investment projects have been implemented in the transport sector, which resulted in the commissioning of 2.000 km of roads, 240 bridges, 132 kilometers of railway lines, 31.5 km of tunnels and protective structures against avalanches
The most successful of these projects are:
- Construction of the «Dushanbe-Dangara» highway in conjunction with the «Exim bank» of China for 256,27 million USD;
- Construction of the «Dushanbe border of Uzbekistan» highway in conjunction with the Asian Development Bank in the amount of 131,2 million USD;
- Construction of the «Dushanbe border of Kyrgyzstan» highway in conjunction with the Asian Development Bank in the amount 76,5 million USD;
- Construction of the «Kulob – Qal’ai-Khumb » plot «Shurobod- Shohon» in conjunction with the Saudi Development Fund, OPEC Fund, Islamic Development Bank, Kuwait Development Fund and Abu Dhabi Fund for a total 92,9 million USD;.
- Construction of the «Dushanbe-Khujand-Chanak» and the Shahriston tunnel, in conjunction with «China Road and Bridge Corporation» company worth 310 million USD;
The length of the railways of Tajikistan is 935 km. Tajikistan is a part of the Trans-Asian Railway system with 28 countries in Asia and Europe. This agreement entered into force on June 11, 2009.It is designed to facilitate freight and passenger traffic within Asia and between Asia and Europe.
The Government of the Republic of Tajikistan together with the Governments of Turkmenistan and Afghanistan is implementing a project to build the Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Tajikistan railway. It is assumed that this railway will create favorable conditions for increasing the pace of socio-economic development of the region. Air transportation is carried out both by local and international airlines. Tajikistan has 4 international airports in the cities of Dushanbe, Khujand, Kurgan-Tube and Kulyab. During the period of state independence, agreements on aviation communications were signed with 21 countries of the near and far abroad. In addition, domestic companies Tajik Air provide services to citizens on 33 air routes in 9 countries near and far abroad.
On September 3, 2014, a modern passenger terminal with a capacity of 500 passengers per hour, built at the expense of Tajikistan and France, was commissioned at Dushanbe International Airport.
One of the main sectors in the economy of the Republic of Tajikistan is agriculture, due to which currently the country provides about 23.3% of GDP, more than 70% of jobs, 25% of exports and 35% of tax revenues to the state budget. Despite the fact that the climatic conditions of the republic are ideally suited for the cultivation of virtually all varieties of grain crops, the mountainous terrain yet still slightly narrows down the possibilities of the population in agricultural production. The total area suitable for agricultural activities is 7.2 million hectares, however most of it used as pastureland for livestock. The cultivated land for agricultural crops is total of 675 thousand hectares, of which only 470 thousand hectares are irrigated. Another 180 thousand hectares of these areas are cultivated under gardens and vineyards. Every year, more than 1.4 million tons of grain, 900 thousand tons of potatoes, 1.6 million tons of vegetables, 595 thousand tons of melons and 300 thousand tons of fruits are produced on irrigated and rainfed lands of sunny Tajikistan. It should be noted that in 2016 the volume of export of Tajik vegetables and fruits exceeded 200 thousand tons.
Cotton up to the present day continues to form the basis of Tajik export. That is why this agricultural crop occupies 1/3 of the entire ploughed area of the republic. Due to suitable agro-ecological conditions, in which 10 months of sunny days a year play an important role, and due to abundant water resources, one can annually produce in the country up to 400 thousand tons of high-quality cotton.Taking into consideration the geographic features of the republic and the large number of mountain rivers and lakes, fishing in Tajikistan is considered one of the most profitable areas of activity. To date, the demand of the republic’s population in fish is 14 thousand tons. Taking into account the available volumes of water resources, the country plans to increase the production of fish products to 200 thousand tons. It should be noted that as of January 1st, 2016, the volume offish production in the Republic of Tajikistan was 2023 tons.In Tajikistan, beekeeping is part of the national culture and has its own ancient history. Even the famous scientist Abu Ali ibn Sina (Avicenna), in his work The Canon of Medicine told about the benefits of honey and bee venom for human health. The abundance of nectariferous plants in the republic allows to breed from 500 to 600 thousand honey-bee colonies, which could bring from 10 to 12 thousand tons of honey per year, as well as a large number of other related products such as wax, propolis, pollen, royal jelly and bee venom. In the conditions of Tajikistan, a huge bee forage for the development of beekeeping is available. To date, honey-bearing farmland is about 5 million hectares, which allows raising the production of honey from 30 to 40 thousand tons per year
Animal breeding is one of the component parts of the agrarian sector of the economy of the Republic of Tajikistan, which, from the point of view of the total production of agricultural products in the country, ranks second after the crop production. In the mountain regions of the republic, animal breeding is the main source of income for the population. Comfortable natural and climatic conditions, soil quality and abundance of various wild plants in the republic form favorable conditions for raising various breeds of farm animals. That is why the number of livestock inventory and poultry stock in Tajikistan annually increases on average by 8-10%. The portion of farm units among the population in the production of all livestock products, except for eggs and poultry meat, has been steadily increasing in recent years, exceeding 85-90%.
Today, about 40 types of minerals are mined in the Republic of Tajikistan. About 100 deposits are in use. At the same time, more than 600 deposits of polychemical, rare and noble metals were discovered and explored, which are partially prepared for industrial development.
The country’s bowels are rich in zinc, lead, bismuth, molybdenum, tungsten, copper, gold, silver, antimony, mercury, fluorspars, tin, uranium, iron, manganese, common salt, magnesium and many other mineral resources that have a fairly high export potential.
Tajikistan’s chemical industry is relatively young, but has significant development potential. Thus, the country has a strong base of raw materials for the development of the chemical industry, mainly a wide range of minerals, electricity and water resources.
The country already has a large-scale production of chlorine and nitrogen fertilizers.
Domestic companies produce the following products:
- Rubber products,
- Respirators, linoleum,
- Plastic pipes and containers,
- Paints and varnishes,
- Silicate paints,
- Liquid bottle,
- Household chemicals,
- Caustic soda,
- Technical strontium salt,
- Reactive strontium salts (more than 10 types),
- Reactive salts of bismuth, barium, strontium,
- Industrial explosives.
Chemical products are mainly used in metallurgy, construction and light industry. Currently, a cryolite plant with an annual design capacity of 30,000 tons is being built in Yovon. It is based on local raw materials. This enterprise is being built on the basis of modern technologies and in the future will fully meet the annual needs of the State Unitary Enterprise “Tajik Aluminum Company” with aluminum fluoride and cryolite.
In the future, it is planned to build sulfuric acid plants with a production capacity of 100,000 tons. and superphosphate 150,000 tons. per year. Also production of sodium cyanide, baking soda, caustic soda, chloromethane and its products, detergents, chemicals, processing of coal and oil, nitric acid, nitrate, potassium chloride, ammophos, processing of metal concentrates, non-ferrous and precious metals is considered, element of boron and sulfur on the basis of existing capacities of chemical enterprises of the republic.
Tajikistan possesses a great cultural and historical heritage, distinctive culture, favorable geographical location, a variety of natural landscapes, unique natural monuments for the development of inbound and domestic tourism.
On the territory of Tajikistan there are the majestic Pamir mountains, known throughout the world as the “roof of the world”. There are climbing routes to the highest mountain peaks – Ismoili Somoni and Evgeniya Korzhenevskaya, located at an altitude of more than 7000 thousand meters, hunting grounds, etc. A unique man-made natural monument in the Pamirs is the Pamir Botanical Garden, located at an altitude of 2320 m above sea level near the town of Khorog.
On the territory of Tajikistan, there are about 200 sources of mineral and thermal waters, on the basis of which the sanatorium-resort direction of tourism is developing.
Today, a competitive tourist market has been formed in Tajikistan and more than 150 tourist companies operate. In order to develop international tourism in the republic, an electronic visa issuance system has been introduced. (www.evisa.tj)
More than 65% of sanatorium-resort and tourist facilities have been restored in the country, more than 300 private tourist recreation areas have been built, which creates real conditions for organizing international tourism, employment of the population and attracting investments.
Tajikistan is the land of the highest peaks, huge glaciers, rapid turbulent rivers, lakes of unique beauty, unique vegetation and rare animals. It is the mountainous, floor-by-floor landscape that determines the originality and uniqueness of the nature of Tajikistan, the richness of its forms, caused by a variety of climatic zones. In the republic, for an hour and a half of flight from the sultry heat of the Vakhsh valley, one can get into the arctic cold of the eternal snows of the Pamirs.